Warming of 2 °C will lead to an average global ocean rise of 20 cm, but more than 90% of coastal areas will experience greater rises. If warming continues above 2 °C, then, by 2100, sea level will be rising faster than at any time during human civilization, and 80% of the global coastline is expected to exceed the 95th percentile upper limit of 1.8 m for mean global ocean sea level rise. Coastal communities, notably rapidly expanding cities in the developing world; small island states; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Cultural World Heritage sites; and vulnerable tropical coastal ecosystems will have a very limited time after midcentury to adapt to these rises.


Jevrejeva, S., Jackson, L.P., Riva, R.E.M., Grinsted, A. & Moore, J.C. (2016). ‘Coastal sea level rise with warming above 2°C’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(47), 13342-13347.
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