In Coningsby, a Benjamin Disraeli novel published in 1844, a character impressed with the technological spirit of the age remarks, “I see cities peopled with machines. Certainly Manchester is the most wonderful city of modern times.”

Today, of course, Manchester is mainly associated with urban decline. There is a simple economic explanation for this, and one that can help guide cities and nations as they prepare for another technological revolution.


Frey, C. (2014). 'How 21st-Century Cities Can Avoid the Fate of 20th-Century Detroit'. Scientific American, 22nd August 2014.
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