One of the most challenging problems in technological forecasting is to identify as early as possible those technologies that have the potential to lead to radical changes in our society. In this paper, we use the US patent citation network (1926–2010) to test our ability to early identify a list of expert-selected historically significant patents through citation network analysis. We show that in order to effectively uncover these patents shortly after they are issued, we need to go beyond raw citation counts and take into account both the citation network topology and temporal information. In particular, an age-normalized measure of patent centrality, called rescaled PageRank, allows us to identify the significant patents earlier than citation count and PageRank score. In addition, we find that while high-impact patents tend to rely on other high-impact patents in a similar way as scientific papers, the patents' citation dynamics is significantly slower than that of papers, which makes the early identification of significant patents more challenging than that of significant papers. In the context of technology management, our rescaled metrics can be useful to early detect recent trends in technical improvement, which is of fundamental interest for companies and investors.
Mariani, M.S., Medo, M. & Lafond, F. (2018). 'Early identification of important patents through network centrality'. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2018.01.036