We calculate the frequency of games with a unique pure strategy Nash equilibrium in the ensemble of n-player, m-strategy normal-form games. To obtain the ensemble, we generate payoff matrices at random. Games with a unique pure strategy Nash equilibrium converge to the Nash equilibrium. We then consider a wider class of games that converge under a best-response dynamic, in which each player chooses their optimal pure strategy successively. We show that the frequency of convergent games with a given number of pure Nash equilibria goes to zero as the number of players or the number of strategies goes to infinity. In the 2-player case, we show that for large games with at least 10 strategies, convergent games with multiple pure strategy Nash equilibria are more likely than games with a unique Nash equilibrium. Our novel approach uses an n-partite graph to describe games.


Wiese, S.C. & Heinrich, T. (2021). 'The Frequency of Convergent Games under Best-Response Dynamics'. Dynamic Games and Applications. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13235-021-00401-3
Go to Document